Nematophagous Fungi: Guide by Philip Jacobs, BRIC-Version

Nematophagous Fungi - Homepage
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Nematophagous fungus species presented here
Species
Trap types of nematophagous fungi
Traps
Comparison of trapping quota of predacious fungi in vitro
Quota
Literature about nematophagous fungi
Literature
Interesting links in the WWW about nematophagous fungi
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Nematophagous fungi - an illustrated overview

Adhesive network of Arthrobotrys oligospora with captured nematode
Adhesive network of Arthrobotrys oligospora with captured nematode Constricting ring of Arthrobotrys dactyloides with captured nematode
Constricting ring of Arthrobotrys dactyloides with captured nematode
    

So far we know more than 160 fungus species that live on Nematodes partially or entirely (DOWE 1987). Nematophagous fungi are found in almost every natural soil and aditionally in a number of other substrates. They play an important role as antagonists of nematodes. Therefore there is great interest in research of possibilities to use them in biological plant protection.

Nematode-trapping fungi (predators, predaceous fungi)

Predators we call fungi that develop their mycelium predominantly outside their host, which means that they are also able to live as saprophytes and trap their prey on vegetative hyphae or in special traps. This means that only mobile nematode stages are caught.
The predators are devided into several groups concerning the trapping mechanisms (DOWE 1987). Except for some species that are able to develop adhesive substance on any part of their mycelium, predacious fungi develop special traps: adhesive three-dimensional networks, adhesive columnar branches, adhesive knobs, constricting rings and non-constricting rings.
At the place of adhesion, a mortiferous excrescence perforates the cuticle of the nematode (in the case of most predators - but not of Nematoctonus - forming a globular structure called infection bulb), then giving rise to assimilative hypha growing through the body of the prey, which is digested by enzymes secreted by the fungus and after that resorbed (DRECHSLER 1937; NORDBRING-HERTZ and STÅLHAMMAR-CARLEMALM 1978).

Endoparasitic nematophagous fungi

Except for the development and spreading of the spores, the entire life cycle of the endoparasites takes place inside the host. Depending on the species, any nematode stages can be attacked. The way of infection can be either peroral (e. g. Harposporium anguillulae LOHDE) or - in most species - percutanous. Only the second group is of significance for biological control of phytopathogenous nematodes, because eelworms with a mouth prick cannot swallow whole spores, instead, some of them are able to suck out the conidia of the fungus.


Nematophagous Fungi - Homepage
Home
Nematophagous fungus species presented here
Species
Trap types of nematophagous fungi
Traps
Comparison of trapping quota of predacious fungi in vitro
Quota
Literature about nematophagous fungi
Literature
Interesting links in the WWW about nematophagous fungi
Links
Contact with author
Contact

http://www.biological-research.com/   -   in German: http://www.nematophage-pilze.de/   -   last changed 30-04-2002   -   © Philip Jacobs